Standard Diagnostic Procedures
Urinary cytology screening is used for inflammatory diseases, precancerous conditions, and cancer. Cytology has a high specificity of 98% in the diagnosis of bladder cancer.
Implementation of The Paris System for Reporting Urinary Cytology was adopted and used primarily to lower atypical diagnostic rates, focus on high-grade screening and provide our clinicians with a more efficient and diagnostic way of reporting and treating a patient.
Enhanced Cytology Testing
hTERT Antibody ICC
hTERT Antibody ICC – To enhance our highly specific cytology testing, we have added an FDA-approved biomarker that aids in the detection of bladder cancer.
Anti -hTERT Antibody (RNA component/ telomerase reverse transcriptase)
Contains a cancer-related biomarker known as telomerase. The addition of Anti-hTERT ICC is crucial in patient care with the knowledge that 90% of bladder cancers use telomerase. When this antibody stains positive, it indicates an increased chance of urothelial cancer (including pre-invasive urothelial proliferation and invasive cancer).
Fluorescent In-Situ Hybridization (FISH
Urovysion FISH is FDA approved for the detection of bladder cancer in voided urine. This FISH assay is used for chromosomal abnormalities associated with the development and recurrence of bladder cancer.
The detection of chromosomal abnormalities such as aneuploidy in chromosomes 3, 7, 17 & the loss of 9p21 locus. Urovysion FISH is FDA approved for the detection of bladder cancer in voided urine. This FISH assay is used for chromosomal abnormalities associated with the development and recurrence of bladder cancer.
Left: Normal transitional cell by Urovision. Right: Abnormal transitional cell by Urovision
Enhanced Cytology Testing
As part of The CytoGen Complete Study, Urovysion FISH analysis testing increases the sensitivity for the detection of bladder cancer.
PTEN/ ERG FISH
Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog, also known as PTEN, is a tumor suppressor gene that is associated with a deletion in about 50% of prostate cases. Various deletion combinations may be reported with this FISH assay, including the loss of the PTEN gene and whether it is hemizygous, where one allele is absent, or homozygous, where both alleles are absent.
The Erythroblast transformation specific Related Gene or ERG has been linked to being involved with prostate cancer through another gene identified as TMPRSS2. An ERG deletion, increased copy number, and/or rearrangement on FISH could furthermore correlate with cancer prognosis and reoccurrence.
PTEN and ERG FISH results will ultimately benefit patients diagnosed with prostate cancer to assess the aggressiveness of treatment.
Urinary STI Testing
Urine specimens may be submitted to test for sexually transmitted infections. Our testing method is through Transcription Mediated Amplification or (TMA) PCR. We currently offer STI testing to both males and females to include:
- Chlamydia trachomatis
- Neisseria gonorrhea
- Trichomonas vaginalis
- Mycoplasma genitalium